We don't want to see the deformation of the precise and complex die, but this situation is inevitable. We only need to grasp its deformation law, analyze its causes, and adopt different methods to prevent the deformation of the die can be reduced and controlled. Usually, we can refer to the following methods for heat treatment deformation of precision and complex dies.
(1) Reasonable selection of materials. The micro-deformed die steel (such as air-quenched steel) with good quality should be selected for precision and complex dies, the die steel with serious carbide segregation should be forged reasonably and tempered and heat-treated, and the bigger and non-forging die steel can be treated by solid solution double refinement heat treatment.
(2) The design of the die structure should be reasonable, the thickness should not be too different, the shape should be symmetrical, the deformation law should be mastered for the die with large deformation, the processing allowance should be reserved, and the combined structure can be used for the large and precise complex die.
(3) Precision and complex dies should be pre-heat-treated to eliminate the residual stress in the process of machining.
(4) Reasonable selection of heating temperature and control of heating speed can reduce heat treatment deformation of precise and complex dies by slow heating, preheating and other balanced heating methods.
(5) On the premise of guaranteeing the hardness of the die, the pre-cooling, step cooling and quenching or temperature quenching process should be adopted as far as possible.
(6) For precision and complicated dies, vacuum heating and quenching and cryogenic treatment after quenching should be adopted as far as possible when conditions permit.
(7) Pre-heat treatment, ageing heat treatment and quenched and tempered nitriding heat treatment can be used to control the precision of some precise and complicated dies.
(8) When repairing defects such as sand holes, air holes and wear of dies, the repair equipment with little heat effect such as cold welding machine should be selected to avoid deformation during repairing.
In addition to the above methods, correct heat treatment process operation (such as blocking, binding, mechanical fixing, suitable heating method, correct choice of cooling direction of die and movement direction in cooling medium, etc.)
Reasonable tempering heat treatment process is also a remedial measure.
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